Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi is a town which located in Kiev region, Ukraine, with a population of more than 30 thousand inhabitants. It is the administrative centre of Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi region. The city stands on the banks of the river Trubizh, left tributary of the Dnieper.
Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi played a significant role in the history of Kiev Russ and Ukraine. The first mentioning about Pereyaslav (Pereslavl, Pereslavl or Russian) was in "The Tale of Bygone Years" and dated by 907 year. In 2007 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky celebrated his birthday, the 1100th anniversary. The name of the city means "borrowed glory". According to the legend, the Russian army defeated the Pechenegs on the ground of the city, when an unknown kozhemyaka from Kiev won the combat against the famous Pecheneg’s warrior, and "borrowed his glory."
Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovich built a large fortress to protect the southern borders of Kiev Russ from the steppe nomads. Hypothetically, the residence of Russian Metropolitans had been in Pereyaslav, before The Saint Sophia Cathedral was built in Kiev. From the middle of the X century the city was the capital of the principality Perejaslavskogo, which had played the important role in protecting Russ from the Pechenegs and later from the Polovtsy. Pereyaslavl was destroyed by Mongol-Tatars in1239.
In 1654 Bohdan Khmelnytskyi gathered the great council of the Ukrainian Cossacks in Pereyaslav ("Council of Pereyaslav"), in which it was decided to conclude a military alliance with Russia. As a result, Left-bank’s Ukraine gradually came under the power of Moscow. In 1943, after the liberation from fascists, the town was renamed in Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi.
In the 16th century city received Magdeburg Law. After a Bogdan Khmelnitsky in Ukraine rose against the Poles regimental system in the summer of 1648 Pereyaslav became the center of the district - of the same regiment (though, as a separate unit Pereiaslav Cossack regiment existed since the times of the Hetman Mark Zhmayla).
Pereyaslav regiment was one of the largest in Ukraine (in 1649 totaled 18 hundreds). Pereyaslav remained regimental city in 1782 During the Cossack war Pereyaslav was an important center for the supply of weapons and food for troops. During this time he plays the role of the diplomatic center of the state. This came Polish, Moscow, Hungarian, Tatar, Turkish ambassadors. The war with Poland promised to be a long and bloody, Tatars and Turks could not be reliable allies, as Hetman repeatedly appealed to the Moscow government with an offer of a military alliance between Ukraine and Russia. In October 1653 the Zemsky Sobor in Moscow finally decided on an alliance. To Pereyaslav 31 December 1653 came from the embassy in Moscow Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, led by the boyar VI Buturlin. January 7 Hetman met with the king's ambassadors to clarify the conditions and
procedures for union oath. Concorde achieved after a heated discussion and mutual compromise. The main substance of the agreement, executed in the form of Pleas in the name of the king, was the fact that Ukraine has accepted the protectorate of Moscow autocrat, retaining full (both domestic and foreign affairs) autonomy, its republican system and the special structure of the Cossacks. Ukraine had the right to maintain diplomatic relations with other countries, except Poland and Turkey.
Morning of January 8 Foreman Council adopted the specification terms of the agreement. In the afternoon, convened a general council of the central square. Gathered almost all the Cossack officers, heads of regiments, 5-7 from each regiment of Cossacks, clergy, burghers and others. Pereyaslav regiment was at full strength. Membership of the Council declared that wish to "turn the king of the Eastern, Orthodox."
After the council Hetman, colonels and officers went to Assumption Church, where the presence of ambassadors and priests took the oath of Moscow Moscow Tsar. In all cities and Ukraine went to Moscow regiments were sent for taking an oath on the ground, but not always greeted them cordially. For example, Kiev clergy was not swearing at all and acidly took this union. Nor oath Colonel Ivan Bohun and Martyn Pushkar.
As a result of this agreement, Left-bank Ukraine gradually fell under the power of Russia.
After the death of Bohdan Khmelnytsky between officers began squabbling and power struggle. Considerable territory of Ukraine captured people's uprising. In July 1666 rebellion broke out in Pereiaslav Regiment. However, the city developed. In Pereyaslav operated two schools - and Dormition at Protection Church. Large scale construction came mostly wooden. It was rebuilt St. Michael's church, destroyed by the Tatars. At the expense of Ivan Mazepa erected main cathedral of Ascension Monastery.
An old post office in museum of folk architecture. The whole town was proclaimed a historical sanctuary. The largest tourist attractions are:
■ The museum of folk architecture, presenting the architecture and traditions of Ukrainians from ancient times up to the 19th century.
■ Excavated ruins of buildings from the 10–11th centuries.
■ St. Michael's church (1646–66) and Ascension monastery (with cathedral built in 1695-1700).
Outdoor Museum of Architecture in Pereiaslav- Khmelnytskyi. The whole town was proclaimed a historical sanctuary because of the largest museum of folk architecture. The museum presents the architecture and traditions of Ukrainians from ancient times up to the 19th century, including a notable collection of wind mills from the 17–19th centuries. Excavated ruins of buildings from the 10–11th centuries.
On the territory of the Pereiaslav Outdoor Museum there are following museums: Museum of Bread, Museum of Land Transportation, Museum of Ukrainian Decorative Towe l s , Mus eum o f Sho l em Aleichem (Solomon Rabinowitz, a nineteenth - century Yiddish humorist), Museum of Space Exploration, Museum of Posta l Services, Museum of Beekeeping, Museum of Applied and Decorative Arts, Museum of Ukrainian Traditional Rituals, Museum of Archeology, Museum of the Cossack Glory, Museum of Trypillya Culture, Museum of Ukrainian Traditional Dresses, etc.
√ Sholem Aleichem (Yiddish שלום - עליכם , the real name of Solomon (Shalom) Naumovich (Nohumovich) Rabinowitz, 1859, Pereyaslav - 1916, New York) - Ukrainian Jewish writer, playwright, one of the founders of modern Yiddish literature, including child.
√ Savenko, Anatoly [1874-1922] - Russian nationalist and monarchist, the chairman of the Kiev club of Russian nationalists, the State Duma deputy.
√ Crystal (Nosar) (1877-1918), first chairman of the Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies (October 14 - November 26, 1905).
√ Moysiyaha Andrei V. - renowned poet, writer and social activist.