Kharkiv was founded in the middle of XVII century as a defensive item. Acquaintance with the city begins with the University hill. It is named so because of the opening on its territory one of the first universities, which became the center of science and culture in Ukraine and southern Russia. This is the old center and the oldest part of town. Here on the hill, at the confluence of rivers Kharkiv and Lopan, in 1654-1655 years was built their first home by migrants from Pravoberezhna Ukraine. They came to the territory of present-day town, fleeing from the Polish gentry. The settlement became known as the Kharkiv after the river on which it was built.
Universitetskaya street, as, indeed, the very hill, got its name from the Kharkiv Imperial University, founded here in 1805. Former university building is the Governor's Palace, built under the direction of I.M. Vilyanov and P.A. Yaroslavsky specially for the arrival of Catherine II to Kharkiv.
Catherine II gave emblem of the city, which shows crossed cornucopia and scepter of the god of trade Mercury. This emblem has been so successful, that any subsequent attempts to change it, including radioactive spike and gear of the Soviet period, have failed. Emblem remained in the memory of kharkovians just the way it had granted more than two centuries ago by Catherine II.
One of the attractions of Kharkiv Ukraine is Pokrovsky Cathedral, the oldest surved building in the city. It was built in 1689. Pokrovsky Cathedral - a valuable monument of Ukrainian architecture of the second half of XVII century. This is a typical Ukrainian church. The external furniture of the building contains elements of Russian architecture - evidence of relations between Ukrainian and Russian cultures.
In the center of the University hill - the Assumption Cathedral, one of the most remarkable architectural monuments, built in 1771 - 1777 years in the Russian baroque style. In 1821 - 1844 years by the architect E. Vasilyeva in memory of the victory of Russian troops over Napoleon's army was built a new bell tower. Golden domes on the bell tower attracts by simplicity and grandeur, austerity of forms. It is the tallest building in Kharkiv Ukraine - the height of 89,5 meters.
In the Korolenko lane, adjoined to the square of the Constitution, is famous for State Scientific Library named after V. Korolenko. It is one of the largest libraries of Ukraine opened in 1886. Library building was built in 1901 by architect Beketov. In the Library's collections - about 5 million books on more than 80 languages.
One of the oldest streets of the city - Moscow Street appeared in XVII century. The way to Moscow started on this street in the XVII century. Now this street is named Moskovsky Prospekt. Summy street also appeared in the XVII century, it got its name from the direction of the old road to the city of Sumy. The oldest street of Kharkiv is Rymarskaya street, its construction began in the XVII century. But first houses here were not preserved. At the end of XVII century there was the road to the city Zmiyev, which initiated Zmievskaya Street (now Prospect Gagarina).
Simultaneously with the appearance of a fortress there was Nicholas' Square with the Nicholas Church, built behind a single wall of the fortress soon after the founding of the city. In the XVII century on the Square held annual fairs, and in winter it was a place of sleigh rides. Now this area is known as Constitution Square.
Currently, the main square of Kharkiv Ukraine is the Freedom Square, one of the largest in Europe. Also, a distinctive landmark of Kharkiv is a monument to the great Ukrainian Kobzar, which is located in a garden named after Taras Shevchenko - the oldest green area in the center of the city.
* International Annual Book Festival "World of Book".
* International Music Festival "Kharkiv Assemblies".
* International Festival of Classical Music "Vladimir Krainov invites".
* International Film Festival "Kharkiv lilac".
* The annual festival of science fiction writers "Star Bridge".
* Annual Ethnographic and Music Festival "Pecheniz'ke field".
* The annual international children's television festival "My child".
* The annual international children's festival of underwater images "Living Water - Delta"/
Attractions of Kharkiv
Central Square of Kharkiv - Liberty Square (to the second half of 1990 - Dzerzhinsky Square).
Kharkiv Planetarium named byYuri Gagarin - opened in 1957.
Kharkiv Zoo - the third time of the opening in the Russian Empire and its history started in 90's of the XIX century, when the initiative of Professor Alexander Fedorovich Brandt attempted to organize the "aquarium". Currently, an area of Zoo is 22 hectares, and in the collection, there are about 400 species of animals, including rare and endangered species.
Kharkiv dolphinarium - the largest in the CIS. Opened in Mayof 2009.
Monument to Yaroslav the Wise, near the metro station "Пушкинская"
Kharkiv metro includes 3 lines of 28 stations and has a length of 35,6 km.
There is airlift across botanical garden of Kharkiv University and Gorky Park.
In Kharkiv Ukraine situated management of the Southern Railway and the Children's Railway Little Southern.
English Tank Mk V of the time of WWI
Blagoveshenski Bazar (Blagbaza) - nowdays is the central market, was one of the largest in eastern Ukraine. There is also the fact that here in the 20-ies of XX century came poors from all over Ukraine (Kharkiv was then the capital), and it is here Makarenko collected homeless children when he created his Kuryazhskaya colony.
Major architectural monuments
Architecture of Kharkiv
The oldest surviving building of the city is Pokrovsky Cathedral in the Baroque style. Today it is a monastery, consecrated in 1689 and subsequently gave its name to the monastery, founded in the XVIII century. The oldest public building - the Governor's Palace (also Baroque), built in 1777 by architect M. Tikhmenev and P. Yaroslavsky on the street, then called the University at the university, set up in 1805 in the palace. The building of two-storey warehouse was a food warehouse for the city, built in 1787 in the style of Russian classicism in the lane, then called on the architect of this building Yaroslavsky (on the Poetry Square) and in 2005 the interior was destroyed by "Domotehnika " , which opened shop in architectural monument. The most authentically old apartment building is a small one-storey manor built in the end of XVIII century by mayor E.E. Uriupin on the Rymarskayastreet, 4.
In Kharkiv, in spite of vast destruction during the WWII, there are more than in any other city survived monuments of architecture in the style of constructivism.
* Gosprom - House of State Industry, a monument of architecture in the style of constructivism.
* Freedom Square (former Dzerzhinsky Square ") - the fifth size in Europe and ninth in the world
* Mirror stream in the park of the Victory, 1947, str. Summy.
* Monument to Taras Shevchenko, the height of 16,5 m, 1934 - 1935, the authors A.M. Manizer and I.G. Langbard, weight 30 tons of metal, cast in foundries of Leningrad. The best monument to Shevchenko in the world.
* Seven Wonders of Kharkiv Ukraine in miniature set on the square of Architects.