Some people think that the real adventure in Ukraine is expecting them only in the Crimea or in Karpathean mountains. It might be twice more interesting to visit Mykolaiv region of Ukraine and to get acquainted with Pervomaisk
Pervomaisk (Ukrainian Pervomaysk) is a city in the Mykolaiv region of Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Pervomaisk district. The population of the city is - 67 200 inhabitants.
It’s former historic names : Lovnitsky Orel, Orlik, Catherine trench, Ekaterinin, Olviopol.
Known since 1676.. In 1773 the location received the city status.
In 1743 the government of the Russian Empire decided to arrange a six bastion trench fortress against the enemy surprise attacks and it was named Lovnitsky Orel.
In 1764, a Customs Department was established in Orlic in order to promote trade among neighboring Russians, Polish and Tatars. The following year for the people coming from Turkey a quarantine was established.
In 1770, Orlovsky was named Catherine trench . In 1773, Catherine trench got the status of the city with a fortress to protect the crossing of the Bug.
The exact date of renaming Catherine trench into Olviopol is unknown, But in 1781, the city was mentioned in the documents as Olviopol after the famous ancient Greek colony of Olbia.
In 1750, on the left bank of the Southern Bug River near cyanosis, which was the border with Turkey and Zaporozhye, Count Potocki, had built a strengthening quarantine outpost Bogopol. The name derives from the name of the Southern Bug, which in previous centuries the Slavs called " God”. After the right bank of Ukraine was joined to Russia in 1793, Bogopol joined Russia too.
In 1762, the Cossacks and Ukrainian peasants in the right low-lying coast of Southern Bug on Turkish territory lay a suburb Olt (the former name of current Pervomaisk district- Gault, in Turkic - "Lowlands"). Among the three parts of the city, this was the least developed, because until the abolition of serfdom it did not practically develop and had an official name - the village of Gault.
In the XIX century Olviopol with its surroundings was a very remarkable locality in the sense that nowhere in the whole province, so many different traditions and superstitious tales like there had survived. This is explained by the fact that here, at the former border of three states, the villagers did not have the political troubles and were not forced to change their ashes. Here they freely moved from one bank of the river to another, depending on the circumstances, always keeping their traditions, their common memories of bygone times. Since the establishment of the customs there existed a haunt of smugglers too. The most common beliefs were in the secret treasures. Many of the residents claimed that they saw treasures in their dreams, in the form of some unusual for those areas animals or in the form of strangers or fire.
Olviopol, Bogopol and Gault, as separate settlements had existed till 1919.
Prior to the beginning of the second half of XIX century there in Olviopol the first mills appeared and they were placed on the rivers.
In the development of capitalist relations after the 1861 reform, the rapid development of the city's economy was due to the first railroad here, which considerably enlivened Pribuzhie. With the commissioning of the railway industrial enterprises started to appear The first company with a steam engine plant was Goltyan brewing built in 1870. Simultaneously with the construction of the railway and the bridge over the Southern Buh German Heine had constructed a factory for the production of horse-drawn threshing machines, equipment for mills and various agricultural implements.
In 1895, close to the Heine plant mechanical engineer Henry Faatts built engineering and iron-foundry. After the October Revolution in the 20s, based on the combined works of Heine and Faattsa there was established the engineering plant named after the 25 October. In 1896 a tobacco factory was opened.
In all parts of the city there operated water mills, oil mills, pottery, distilleries, printing houses.In the second half of XIX century schools and gymnasiums were opened in the Gault and Olviopole.
All three settlements: Olviopol, Bogopol and village. Gault - played an important role in the economic lives of the district..
In 1919, the revolutionary committees and trade unions expressed their proposal to merge the three previously separated communities (Gault - Anan'evskij, Bogopol – Balt ) into one city. The decision was unanimous, but there was no agreement on the city’s name. And since there was no unity, they decided to convene a joint meeting of the workers. The meeting took place on May 1, 1919 on the square in front of the hospital of Olviopol. The meeting decided to commemorate the International Day of Solidarity of Workers by naming the city Pervomaisk.
In 1923, Pervomaisk became the regional center of Odessa Province. By the end of 1925 there operated a brick, leather, soap plants and brewery. A diesel power plant was serving 450 subscribers.
Since June 1930 the city became the center of the region. In 1938, Pervomaisk was attributed to the category of cities of regional subordination. In 1939 the city population was 33 thousand .
Nazi Germany's attack interrupted the peaceful life of the citizens. From July 9, 1941 Southern Front headquarters worked in Pervomaisk. Despite the stubborn resistance of the Soviet troops on 3 August 1941 German troops occupied the city.
During the occupation, there were six clandestine groups in Pervomaisk, which had close ties not only between themselves but also with the guerrillas ( partisans) "Pivdenny" and "Thunderbird", located in the surrounding woods. The underground printed and distributed leaflets and seized weapons from the German trains, helped Soviet soldiers to escape, collected and transported food, weapons and medicine to partisans.
On March 22, 1944 the troops of the 5th Guards Army liberated Pervomaisk. from the German occupation
In the second half of XX century Pervomaisk became a major industrial center, whose main industries are machine building, light industry, food processing industry. In February 1954 Pervomaisk joined the Mykolaiv region. At the end of September 2011 the city is celebrating its 335-d anniversary.
Overall, the city has more than 60 monuments, plaques and memorials in honor of various historical events and personalities. But the attractions of Pervomaisk that really are worth mentioning are the following :
1)Regional Landscape Park, which originates on the eastern outskirts of the city in the valley of the Southern Bug;
2) A branch of the Central Museum of Armed Forces of Ukraine - The Museum of the Strategic Missile Forces.
Regional Landscape Park has a great historical and cultural value, it is extremely rich in archaeological layers – Paleolithic (30 thousand years BC), Mesolithic, Neolithic, Copper and Iron Ages, Bronze Age, and Chernyakhovskaya Tripolye culture with the evidence of settlement of Cimmerians Savromat, Scythians, Olviopolits, the ancient Slavs and the Romans. It is situated in the valley between the villages of the Southern Bug and Migiya Aleksandrovka
Southern Bug River cuts through the southern spur of the ancient mountains - the Ukrainian crystalline shield, and for nearly 40 km flows through the valley with steep rocky cliffs, which sometimes reach a height of 40-60 m.
At the bottom of the 300-400 m wide narrow canyon, you can see noisy big water, sparkling waterfalls, rushing rapids, 12 of which are called major broyaks. Local residents usually guess the weather and water levels depending on the noise of those broyaks. It is interesting to know that there was no sea for 60 million years here, but there were continental conditions, which contributed to the intense biological speciation.
On the territory of the landscape park "Granite Steppe Pobuzhzha" there are about 900 species of vascular plants, of which 26 are in the Red Book of Ukraine. Of nine thousand species of insects living here , 56 species are listed into the Red Book of Ukraine, the same as of 300 species of vertebrates , 46 species are listed into the Red Book of Ukraine too..
National Landscape Park "Granite Steppe Pobuzhzha" is one of the oldest land masses of Eurasia. Hence there is a lot of wildlife. The Mertvovod river clamped by sandwiched rocks, overcomes its way, squeezing through the boulders. If we come from the top of the canyon to the river, we find ourselves in the valley, surrounded from three sides by sheer cliffs. Here, even at noon you can always find shade.
The Museum of the Strategic Missile Forces.
As we have already mentioned before, for a few decades the city of Pervomaisk was of high strategic importance. Here were the headquarters of strategic rocket forces and command posts and mines with the most advanced nuclear missiles all carefully concealed deep underground. In the late twentieth century, when Ukraine announced the elimination of nuclear weapons on its territory, Pervomaisk has become the epicenter of destruction of the most dangerous in the world weapons. One of the command points was converted into a museum.
By the way, all technical and technological systems are intact and alert, except the sites that were intended to perform basic tasks - the launching of the rockets and secret equipment that was dismantled.
The route of the excursion consists of several parts: the first is the opening showing a collection of rocket engines, model R-12 missiles (that were posted once in Cuba in the sixties during the Caribbean crisis). The second part contains the real and documentary materials about the history and formation the same as elimination of this division of the Strategic Missile Forces. After that the visitors are invited to watch a movie rocket launches, etc.
A variety of exhibits is striking not only for its size (from smallest fragments of shells of the Great Patriotic War, and up to 35 m long with a diameter of 3 meters. Such is the intercontinental ballistic missile RS-20V (NATO - SS-18 "Satan" )The museum has more than 2000 items and their number is constantly growing.
Welcome to Pervomaisk !