Departing from the city of Sebastopol, just in a few minutes you come to the territory of the ancient state. In the V century BC on the territory of Tavrida Greek settlers founded the city of Hersonissos. Its ruins are well preserved. Now here is created an archaeological museum, which is always opened for visits. Hersonissos is recognized as one of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine .
Translated from the Greek "Hersonissos" means "peninsula". And indeed, the city was built on a peninsula between the bays. The name of the Tauride he received from the warlike tribe, who inhabited the nearby mountain area, and gave it its name. It has existed for almost 2 thousand years, being part of the history of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and Byzantium.
Originally Chersonese was founded as a colony of wealthy Greek city Herculean Pont. Therefore, he inherited the Hellenic culture and traditions, was a center of commerce, waged war with the Scythians and Kingdom of Bosporus, located in the neighborhood. During the Roman Empire became a fortified center of the Roman troops. Disposition of the city to the plans, invented the Greek architect Hippodameia: straight streets divided the city on a network of approximately equal in magnitude quarters.
In the Middle Ages according to written sources, the city received the name of Kherson, and in ancient chronicles - Korsun. Almost a thousand years, he was a member of the Byzantine Empire. It was the Christian capital of the peninsula, since the city built a large number of monasteries and temples. According to legend here visited Cyril and Methodius, had been Epiphaned Kiev Prince Vladimir.
But the city's economy was severely damaged due to the constant rivalry with the Italian merchants. In addition, it suffered greatly from nomadic incursions in 1399. Hersonissos is often referred as the ancestor of Sebastopol, although they are separated by nearly four centuries. The ruins of Hersonissos during this period were hidden under the soil cover, and only a few remains of the tower pointed to its location. Sevastopol, which was started in a small distance from the ruins of Hersonissos, partly contributed to its further destruction.
In 1827 started excavations on the territory of the Hersonissos, which are not terminated in our days. During this time, were found whole neighborhoods, churches, social and engineering facilities. Today nearly a third of the city is opened for visitors. The total area of Hersonissos - 40 ha.
In the XIX centur there was established men's monastery of St. Vladimir, which later (in the 1920 th) was abolished, and in 1944 the monastic cathedral was destroyed.
Recently, the state allocated funds for the restoration of the cathedral. Work is underway to restore the interior.
Every year in the Hersonissos and the surrounding territories carried out archaeological excavations. This is a kind of archaeological school, where students from Ukraine, Russia, Poland, Italy, USA and other countries receive archaeological practice. Chersonesos included to the list of one hundred monuments of the world, whose preservation is protected by the World Monuments Fund. It also proposed to list the most protected world cultural heritage by UNESCO.
The composition of the reserve:
Settlement Chersonese Taurian (V century BC. E. - XV century Mr. E.). Here archeologists have discovered the public and residential buildings of ancient and medieval times, with well-preserved urban planning. It also established an archaeological museum. The reserve accounts the ancient necropolis of Hersonissos.
Fortress Kalamita (Inkerman), which existed in the VI - XVIII centuries.;
Fortress Chembalo in Balaklava (XIII - XVIII century).
Antique rural holdings and estates in Heracleian peninsula, which represent the first in Ukraine Archaeological Park.
The reserve covers an area of about 500 ha.
The park opened museum exhibitions such as the departments of ancient and medieval history Chersonese. The collection contains more than 200 thousand exhibits, among which half is unique. It was started in the middle of the XIX century. Here are the dishes and jewelry, coins, lamps, crosses, icons. Items from archaeological excavations are the adornment of many collections of famous museums. The most unique museum exhibition - a fort of Hersonissos, a sort of open-air museum.
The scientific team of the reserve publishes scientific papers and guidebooks. Its archive and library are considered the oldest in the south of Ukraine (established in 1888.).
In the last week of May on the fort of Hersonissos held folk festival, which is dedicated to the Day of Slavonic literature and culture. Traditionally, the summer season opens in the Chersonese choral and dance performances, exhibitions of works of folk artists, photo and book exhibitions.