28 Sep 2010 10:11 AM
Old Bakhchisarai is located at the foot of the steep weathered rocks in the river valley Tchuruk-Su. People settled here for forty thousand years ago, but nearby at the river Alma, found a settle that goes down in history for 80 thousand years. With the tread of centuries surf rolled and settled here peoples, creating odd mixture of diverse cultures. Tauris and Scythians, Greeks, and Alans, Goths, and Sarmatians, Huns, Khazars and Pechenegs written in the pages of centuries-old history of these places.
In the XIII century to the Taurica came seven Mongol ulus, forming Crimean Yurt. After the Crimean Khanate was separated from the Golden Horde, Haji-Devlet Giray, grandson Tokhtamish Khan, moved his headquarters from Solkhat (Old Crimea) to the fortress of Kirk-Op (Chufut-Calais). Under the slopes of Cape Burunchak palace was built Ashlam-Saray. As soon as the Crimean Khanate was confirmed in its independence, the residence of the ruler was moved from the valley close Ashlam-Dere in the river valley Tchuruk-Su. Thus was founded Bakhchisarai - "Palace-Garden," embodies the dream of a sophisticated, paradise - a garden, with numerous sources. The name of the city, no doubt, gave Khan's palace - Khan-Sarai, construction and reconstruction which lasted for centuries. The present its area is 4.3 hectares. In the Middle Ages it was much more. The main attraction of Bakhchisarai - Khan's Palace with its magnificent mosque, praised by poets "Fountain of Tears" and sad-dyurbe tombs.
History of Bakhchisarai Khan's palace
In the first half of XV century Khan Haji Giray, wanting to consolidate his power in the Crimea, and not trusting beyam decided to move the capital from Solkhat in the southwestern part of Crimea. It was Kirk-Op (Chufut-Calais). Natural impregnable plateau heights were further strengthened. Under the northern slope of the Khan's palace was built in the city had to be served Khan's coffers during the feudal strife Khan could hide in the citadel. Fortress was also the main prison, where prisoners are crammed. Relocation of the capital was timely: in 1475 the Turks captured the southern and eastern coast of the Crimea. Crimean state fell into vassalage to the Turkish sultan, at the request of whom were appointed and dethrone the Crimean khans. But the vassal did not want to bow before the viceroy of Allah, and Khan decided to gain finally a foothold in the more remote from the Turkish castles and remote mountain areas. Convenient place to base the new capital of the Khan was found in a wide valley, tucked between mountains, with abundant springs and streams Tchuruk-Su (Rotten water). Discover the city could only close to reaching the valley, passes to a well-guarded. Convenient geographical location - at the crossing of trade routes from the eastern steppes and Crimea in the South and West - gave khans new wealth and benefits. Son of Haji Giray Giray Mengli decided to build a palace, which was buried to the green gardens and vineyards. Therefore, the city became known as Bakhchysarai (Palace of Gardens). Such is the brief background of the palace, which is the most complex architectural and artistic construction, changing the face during three centuries (XVI-XVIII).
The Tatars, a former nomads had their own traditions in architecture and used the creative achievements of the people with whom they share fragile political and economic ties, pushed military campaigns. In the palace worked Italian, Turkish, Iranian, Russian and Ukrainian masters. Over time, the basic core of the palace to attach all of the new premises, had a second floor of a high stone wall that was enclosed inside the Fountain Courtyard. During the march of Russian troops in the Crimea in 1736 the palace was badly damaged by fire. The palace building was repeatedly repaired, but the restoration was carried out crudely and clumsily, and many valuable in the architectural and artistic details of the palace were lost Hena. In the 60 years of last century as a result of a very difficult and painstaking restoration works have been restored to the beautiful original paintings and architectural appearance of some buildings.
Description of Bakhchisarai Khan's palace
The total area of the Khan's palace - a more than 4 hectares. In the center - a rectangular courtyard, where the assembled troops and hold parades. Prior to joining the Crimea to Russia is selling stolen during military raids good. Opposite the Palace - The Big Khan Mosque I, the painting is done by the Iranian master Omer in 1763. Towering over the mosque two minarets, from which the muezzin five times a day calling Muslims to prayer. Behind the mosque - a cemetery khans, their families and dignitaries coming; stone monuments decorated with a thin ki ornaments and inscriptions. Right from the entrance - a well-preserved marble monument with the inscription: "On (God), always alive, forever!" The war was the craft of the famous Crimean Giray Khan. 1183 (1769). At the cemetery there are two mausoleums (dyurb e) - architectural monuments of XVI-XVIII centuries, tombs of thirteen of the Crimean khans. Outside the cemetery shows two dome-shaped roof of palace baths - one of the few landmarks of eastern type, surviving without surgery since the XVI century as well.
One of the most ancient architectural details of Khan's palace - the "iron" doors leading to the Ambassador's garden. Clearly indicates that borrowing Tatars architectural traditions of different peoples. Interesting monument of the palace a small palace mosque. The power of the Crimean Khan was limited by the Supreme Council of Crimean lords - sofas for which was built in the XVI century hall council or the court. The talented Iranian artist Omer is not only painted the palace, but stroil.Emu owns the building in summer and fruit pavilions of the palace. Especially bright talent Omer appeared in his sculptural creations - the famous fountain of tears. When visiting the palace Bakhchisaraysky interesting to see and harem building, as well as the coffee room and the embassy hall. In the living rooms of the khan are exhibitions devoted to the fight for the Russian state bordering the Black Sea, the first Russian-Turkish war, the annexation of Crimea to Russia. Much interest in the exhibition "Pushkin in the Crimea, most of which is devoted to a visit to this great Bakhchisarai palace. Each year thousands of people from all corners of the earth tend to Bakhchisarai to see firsthand sung Pushkin Fountain of Tears, enjoy the artful creations of ancient masters.
Other attractions in Bakhchisarai
Museums: Museum of Archaeology and cave cities, the Museum of History and Culture of the Crimean Tatars, Bakhchisarayskiy State Historical and Cultural Reserve
Cave City: Eski-Kerman, Mangup-Calais, Calais Chufut, Kachi-Kalion, Syuyren, Tepe-Kerman, Buckley, Kalos-Lyman